If you just want to add a few missing words and their part-of-speech information to LanguageTool and don’t care about the technical details, please see “Adding words to the POS tagger” on Tips and Tricks.
A tagger, or POS (part-of-speech) tagger is used to tag, or annotate, words with their respective part-of-speech information (see Wikipedia for more background information). Actually, POS tags usually convey more information, such as morphological information (plural / singular etc.).
Most taggers in LanguageTool are dictionary-based because statistical or context-oriented taggers are trained to ignore occasional grammar errors. For this reason, their output will be correct even if the input was in fact incorrect. While this is a desired behavior for most natural language processing applications, in grammar checking it is simply wrong.
We haven’t however tried to train any statistical taggers on incorrect input to correct their output. This remains to be tested by someone who has enough time. However, we did test lexicon-based taggers/lemmatisers. For most languages, we use finite-state automata encoding for them. This means that the plain text files are prepared with a tool in the morfologik-stemming library. The resulting binary files are then used at runtime from Java code by morfologik-stemming library which is bundled with LanguageTool.
Preparing files helps a lot: the Polish input text file of the dictionary is about 190MB but as a binary file it gets squeezed into less than 3MB, plus the speed of the automaton tagger is really high.
Note: some languages get their dictionary data from an external depdendency
(e.g. the German dict,
the Dutch dict).
In these cases, the command below needs to be adapted to point to the
.info files in those JARs.
DictionaryExporter with the
*.dict file as a parameter like this:
java -cp languagetool.jar org.languagetool.tools.DictionaryExporter -i org/languagetool/resource/en/english.dict -info org/languagetool/resource/en/english.info -o dictionary.dump
It will write the contents of the dictionary to
format is three columns separated by tabs: the inflected form of the
word, the base form, and its POS tag. It might look like this:
boyar boyar NN
boyard boyard NN
boyardism boyardism NN:UN
boyards boyard NNS
boyarism boyarism NN:UN
boyarisms boyarism NNS
boyars boyar NNS
(For the meaning of the English tags, see the documentation in our git repository)
POSDictionaryBuilder with two parameters:
DictionaryExporter writes: inflected form, base
form, POS tag. Note that the process needs an input file with UNIX line
endings, so if your lexicon file comes from Windows, run
dos2unix on it
before you proceed.
.info file as described below.
For example, to re-generate a binary dictionary for English with the data that the example above has exported, call this:
java -cp languagetool.jar org.languagetool.tools.POSDictionaryBuilder -i dictionary.dump -info org/languagetool/resource/en/english.info -o output.dict
Copy the result over the existing
.dict file in LanguageTool to actually use it.
A synthesizer dictionary is the counterpart of the POS dictionary: while the POS dictionary takes an inflected form of a word and looks up its base form and POS tag, a synthesizer dictionary takes a base form and a POS tag and returns all inflected forms. Creating a synthesizer dictionary works similarly to building the binary POS dictionary:
java -cp languagetool.jar org.languagetool.tools.SynthDictionaryBuilder -i dictionary.dump -info org/languagetool/resource/en/english_synth.info -o result.dict
Note that this command expects the same plain text input as the
POSDictionaryBuilder - a three column format. Exporting a
synthesizer dictionary, modifying it and creating a new binary
dictionary will not work, as the format is a slightly different one.
See spell checking
To make the file working in LanguageTool, you need also an
which needs to be placed in the same directory as the binary
dictionary. These files already exist for all languages that
LanguageTool supports, so you only have to create one if you build a
binary dictionary that doesn’t exist yet. The file looks like this:
# Dictionary properties
Please note that you can use UTF-8 as the encoding of the dictionary in
the .info file but remember that it must match the encoding of the
input.txt file. The possible values of the property
infix. The first one is the default
value, and usually gets reasonably good results (i.e., small files) of
the dictionary automaton.
If your dictionary contains lemmas or inflected forms with
need to change the separator character. FSA by default uses
separate the inflected form from the lemma, and the lemma from the
_ is a safe bet, as this character is rarely a part of
real dictionary words. You need to change the line containing
fsa.dict.separator like this:
If only the tag field contains a separator character (like
Polish), you don’t have to worry. We stop processing after the second
separator, so you might have as many separator characters as you want.
Joining the tags using
+ can make the dictionary more compact in a
binary form, and the tagger class
PolishTagger.java is able to split
the tag in a correct way.